Name Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Summary An adversary embeds malicious scripts in content that will be served to web browsers. The goal of the attack is for the target software, the client-side browser, to execute the script with the users' privilege level. An attack of this type exploits a programs' vulnerabilities that are brought on by allowing remote hosts to execute code and scripts. Web browsers, for example, have some simple security controls in place, but if a remote attacker is allowed to execute scripts (through injecting them in to user-generated content like bulletin boards) then these controls may be bypassed. Further, these attacks are very difficult for an end user to detect.
Prerequisites Target client software must be a client that allows scripting communication from remote hosts, such as a JavaScript-enabled Web Browser.
Solutions Design: Use browser technologies that do not allow client side scripting. Design: Utilize strict type, character, and encoding enforcement Design: Server side developers should not proxy content via XHR or other means, if a http proxy for remote content is setup on the server side, the client's browser has no way of discerning where the data is originating from. Implementation: Ensure all content that is delivered to client is sanitized against an acceptable content specification. Implementation: Perform input validation for all remote content. Implementation: Perform output validation for all remote content. Implementation: Session tokens for specific host Implementation: Patching software. There are many attack vectors for XSS on the client side and the server side. Many vulnerabilities are fixed in service packs for browser, web servers, and plug in technologies, staying current on patch release that deal with XSS countermeasures mitigates this.
Related Weaknesses
CWE ID Description
CWE-20 Improper Input Validation
CWE-79 Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')
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